Concrete has been recorded in existence as long ago as 7,000BC. It was used by the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used it to build the Colosseum and Hadrian's Wall. Throughout history, concrete has proven itself to be a most flexible and durable construction material.
Today, modern technology has led to high performance concrete with super-tensile load qualities. Also, by the substitution of Portland cement with fly ash (fa) or ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) in the mix, the resulting concrete is stronger still and often used in bridges or in structures exposed to corrosive sea salts.
Concrete's long life means that is more likely that a concrete building will come to the end of its life because no further use can be found for it, rather than a case of the concrete having failed due to age. In these cases, demolition is not always the automatic course. Structures can often be stripped back to their concrete core, then rebuilt to new, contemporary specifications.
For case study examples of durability, see 55 Baker Street, London and Park Hill, Sheffield.
This publication assists engineers in understanding the common challenges of building tall.
An all-you-need-to-know guide on the specification of sustainable concrete.
Guidance on how concrete can be used to achieve credits under the latest version of BREEAM NC:2014.
This guide focuses on concrete and masonry housing, and presents requirements for Part L1A of the Building Regulations.
Gives likely structural options for a concrete frame, with useful points to note - written by engineers for engineers.
This document provides information on the material and resource efficiency of concrete and masonry.
This guide sets out how concrete's attributes can be used to minimise CO2 emissions.
This eighth annual report report presents the concrete industry’s sustainability performance in 2014.
This guide focuses on the use of concrete at Coin Street Neighbourhood Centre and its part in creating a low energy building.
This publication summarises the material used in the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges using Eurocode 2